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Food poisoning

Food poisoning is a food that has been contaminated with germs and microbes’ virus or bacteria and occurs in large proportion in the summer, especially in children and causes high mortality and also in the pilgrimage season. 

Causes of food poisoning 

1 – leave food is uncovered for a long time, which helps to be exposed to pollution
2. Poor cleaning care While preparing food, hands and food items should be washed thoroughly
3 – not to keep food at temperatures suitable for cold refrigerated, especially in the summer
4. Food Expiration (Food Poisoning) Food poisoning caused by bacteria is the leading cause of more than 80% of food poisoning.

Scientists have identified the main bacteria causing food poisoning in twelve ways:

  • Clostiridium perfringins.
  •  Staph. Aureus.
  •  Vibio Species : V.Cholorae : V.Parahaemolylicus.
  •  Bacillus Cereus.
  •  Salmonella.
  •  Clostridium Batulinum.
  •  Shigella.
  •  Toxiginic E.coli.
  •  Campylobacter.   

Salmonella food poisoning is the most common of these species and in some studies accounts for 50% of bacterial food poisoning. Salmonella is a large group of bacteria estimated at 2000 species. These bacteria can be found in sewage, river water, sea water and various types of bacteria. 

These types of bacteria are naturally transmitted by insects, food, and faeces. Fortunately, although these bacteria are abundant in the nature, but food poisoning cases are limited, and children under one year and the adult above age 60 are more susceptible to poisoning, 50% of cases Bacterial poisoning is transmitted by poultry, eggs, meat, milk and its derivatives. salmonella is endemic to domestic animals such as chickens and ducks and is transmitted to eggs. As well as endemic in cows and other domestic animals and can coexist with Salmonella animals, there is no obvious disease. For processed meat, Salmonella may be found in many of them, which have not been properly preserved, improperly prepared, distributed quickly, or consumed after long periods of time. 

The symptoms of food poisoning caused by Salmonella are divided into five main symptoms:

1.Acute gastrointestinal poisoning in 75% of cases.
2. Appearance of bacteria in the blood and without other symptoms in 10% of cases.
3.Typhoid fever is specific to certain types of salmonella.
4. Infections are limited in bones, joints, and cerebral membranes in 5% of cases.
5. Salmonella holder without any side effects In these cases, Salmonella is endemic in biliary gallbladder. 

As for gastrointestinal food poisoning after eating contaminated food, the incubation period lasts from 6 hours to 48 hours and can extend to 12 days The disease usually begins with nausea and vomiting followed by abdominal pain and diarrhea. These symptoms usually last from three to four days, sometimes accompanied by fever in 50% of the patients, and abdominal pain is usually in the area around the umbilicus and is transmitted to the lower right region of the abdomen diarrhea is three to four times a day of severe, bloody diarrhea accompanied by a purulent mucus to severe diarrhea similar to cholera. 

It is also possible to have severe inflammation of the colon, which increases the duration of the disease to ten or fifteen days, and usually the stool is bloody and can continue this condition to two months or three months, but the average is three weeks. High temperature means that bacteria have reached the bloodstream. This is an important development and should not be neglected. Salmonella can settle in the cerebral membranes, heart valves, bones, or joints. If the presence of Salmonella remains in the stool for more than a year, the patient becomes a chronic carrier of salmonella. This is estimated at 2-6 per 1,000 patients, and children and the elderly are more likely to be exposed. There are also various diseases where patients are more susceptible to this bacterial infection, including blood fractures, cancer tumors, AIDS, and infections of the colon immune. 

Signs and symptoms:
(Acute and sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhea, headache, bad general condition) 

First aid
(Calm and reassure the injured, provide the injured with a large amount of water and avoid giving the patient any type of food containing milk derivatives or juice, try to push the patient to vomit)

Recommendation
It is recommended that the patient be transferred to the nearest hospital as soon as possible in the following cases:
(The age of the patient is very large or very small, in the case of continued abdominal pain and diarrhea, in the event of the severity of accompanying symptoms, such as high temperature, in case of a bad home atmosphere) 

Special case:
If the patient has taken a caustic substance (detergents such as chlorase or flash), burns to the lips and mouth can give him cold water or milk while the ambulance is waiting.

How to prevent food poisoning
The purchase of meat from certified and experienced food preservation sites, as well as the provision of equipment for the preservation of meat in particular and other types of food in general So as to prevent the proliferation of bacteria, which often need moderate temperatures for growth, as well as attention to the places of preparation in terms of sanitation and hygiene, as well as attention to educational staff regarding food poisoning and hygiene and hand wash well after the need and the removal of patients from the process of greening, Who complain of gastrointestinal Not to leave food exposed or insect prone or hot for long periods, and use gloves when touching foods and get rid of old foods on a daily basis and not to mix foods, old and fresh, especially disposal of foods that change color, taste or smell. 

By 

Dr. Fatima Wannas Khdier

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