It is a contagious viral disease. It is clear from the name of the disease that it includes fever and the emergence of bleeding due to the virus destroying the walls of the small blood vessels, as well as stopping the blood’s ability to clot, so it is life-threatening.
Hemorrhagic fever is also known as (Congo), and it is considered one of the endemic diseases in Iraq, as the first case was diagnosed in the country in 1979, and since that date, infections have been recorded in a number of Iraq’s governorates at controlled rates, according to the Iraqi health.
Hemorrhagic fever is a group of infectious diseases caused by several distinct families of viruses that interfere with the body’s ability to form clots. In general, the term hemorrhagic fever is used to describe a syndrome that affects multiple body systems (affecting multiple organs), especially the general vascular system, and the body’s ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by bleeding, yet the bleeding itself is rarely Life-threatening Many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening illness.
The emergence and recurrence of viral hemorrhagic fevers is of increasing concern worldwide; It is associated with the occurrence of major epidemics with a high case fatality rate. Lack of timely laboratory diagnosis, functional epidemiological surveillance, inadequate infection control practices in health care facilities, and weak vector control programs can lead to prolonged outbreaks of VHFs.
Viral fever signs and symptoms vary according to the type of virus that causes the disease. In general, early signs and symptoms can include the following:
2- Tiredness, weakness or feeling unwell
3- Pain in muscles, bones or joints
4- Nausea and vomiting
The more severe symptoms include:
1- subcutaneous hemorrhage
3- Gastrointestinal dysfunction
4- Renal, respiratory and hepatic failure
Symptoms vary according to the specific disease. Each person may have slightly different symptoms. Various parts of the body can be affected.
People with severe cases often show signs of bleeding. This may be under the skin, in internal organs, or from body openings such as the mouth, eyes, or ears. But blood loss is rarely the cause of death. These people may also have:
nervous system failure
Hemorrhagic fevers can be caused by infection with many different types of viruses.
These infections can spread through touching the skin or body fluids of an infected patient, touching the feces or urine of infected rodents, through insect bites, or when eating contaminated food.
Viral hemorrhagic fever is spread by contact with infected animals or insects. Viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers live in many animal and insect hosts, and often include mosquitoes, ticks, or rodents.
Some types of viral hemorrhagic fevers are transmitted through mosquito or tick bites. Others are transmitted through contact with infected body fluids, such as blood or saliva, or when infected ticks are crushed.
Final diagnosis requires testing, which is only available in reference laboratories. Laboratory samples may lead to exposure and must be handled with extreme caution. It is not possible to definitively diagnose cases of infection with the virus except in laboratories and using the following tests:
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Antigen detection tests
Virus isolation in a cell culture
Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fevers is difficult. If you live in, work in or travel to areas where these diseases are common
Protect yourself from infection by using appropriate protective measures when handling blood or body fluids. For example, wear gloves and eye and face protection.
Precautions also include exercise caution when handling, disinfecting and disposing of laboratory samples and waste.
As well as slaughter in government slaughterhouses, as well as disposal of slaughter residues, and ensuring that the livestock are free of ticks.
The best approach to protecting against viral fever is prevention, by:
Control and get rid of rodents and prevent them from living in homes or workplaces
Learn how to safely clean rodent droppings
For viruses spread by ticks or mosquitoes, prevention focuses on:
Mosquito and tick control in your environment
Use insect repellent, appropriate clothing, bed nets, window screens and other insect barriers to avoid being bitten
If you are traveling to an area where there is a risk of viral hemorrhagic fever:
Wear long sleeves and long pants
Use insect repellent
Use bed nets in areas where the disease is common.
Avoid contact with livestock or rodents in areas where the disease is common.
Governmental measures to prevent hemorrhagic fever:
The Iraqi authorities confirm that they have taken measures to limit the spread of this viral disease that is transmitted through livestock such as cows, sheep, goats and buffaloes. During the past few days, the authorities imposed strict measures to prevent the phenomenon of indiscriminate slaughter, which often spreads in popular neighborhoods, in addition to preventing the transfer of livestock from one area to another. It also launched campaigns Animal disinfection.
Prof.Dr. Zainab Ali Hussein