Leishmaniasis is an epidemic disease that affects the human body and is transmitted by the bite of a sand fly insect.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Visceral Leishmaniasis (Karimi and Nabipour, 2015; Alemayehu and Alemayehu, 2017).
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is caused by two types of parasites, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, is the most common and causes skin lesions mainly ulcers on the exposed parts of the body. In the Americas, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, and Central Asia (WHO, 2020). Nanobiotechnology using nano-sized particles has been developed to treat many diseases including human tumors. Nano-sized particles are very beneficial due to their structure and size as well as unique biological effects (Ravichandran et al., 2016). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have achieved special importance in scientific research (Ahmed et al., 2016). Studies have shown the direct and harmful effects of silver nanoparticles on the different forms (promastigotes, amastigotes) of the parasite Leishmania tropica, and that the parasite mortality increases with the increase in the concentration of silver nanocomposites used ex vivo., 2017) (Gharby et al.
Toxic effects of pentostam and silver nanoparticles on liver and spleen tissue in albino mice with cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is also one of the parasitic diseases that have been known to humans for centuries, and which are called by many local names and were causing suffering and death for people infected with them (WHO, 2000). Of the cutaneous Leishmania parasites, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major is the most common and causes skin lesions mainly ulcers on the exposed parts of the body, and one of them differs from the other in clinical and immunological aspects. (2020, WHO).
Studies have shown that recent anti-leishmanial chemotherapy applications are far from effective (Sundar et al., 2014). As for the effect of Pentostam treatment, which is one of the most common and effective medicines used. Sometimes the use of this group of drugs is associated with a combination of problems such as drug resistance, toxicity, increased failure rate, and prolonged treatment course. In addition, some patients have experienced some types of heart or renal failure as side effects of these drug compounds. Nevertheless, pentostam remains the first drug of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis in its various forms. In the early 1980s, some reports of patients who did not receive treatment with these drugs were announced, but unfortunately, there is still no development in the production of a new anti-leishmanial drug (Mendonça-Filho et al., 2004).
Bionanotechnology has been developed using nano-sized particles to treat many diseases including human tumors, as new functions and properties of the nanomaterial have been observed in a wide range of applications. Nanotechnology provides important new tools that are expected to have the greatest impact on many areas in Medical science, where recently demonstrated polymer-coated metal NPs as an active and new field of advanced research, for example, silver is an important accessible metal and AgNPs outperform other metal nanoparticles for their antimicrobial effects. However, its stability is a serious problem with polar groups such as hydroxyl or amine groups and is usually used for stabilization (Prasad, 2008), nanocarriers are nanomaterials in the form of inorganic compounds that have the ability to carry drugs and deliver them to the target and reduce Side effects of drugs due to their high capacity in unlimited ion exchange, and as it was shown to load many organic pharmaceutical treatments in these compounds, then nanodrugs became a new idea or called smart drugs that revolutionized the treatment of many diseases and reduced the negative effects and toxicity on tissues Somatics (Alshawwa et al, 2022).